Editor: Robert J. Glushko
Principal Authors: Robert J. Glushko, Jess Hemerly, Murray Maloney, Kimra McPherson, Robyn Perry, Vivien Petras, Ryan Shaw, and Erik Wilde
Contributing Authors: Rachelle Annechino, Matt Earp, J.J.M. Ekaterin, Graham Freeman, Ryan Greenberg, Daniel Griffin, Carl Lagoze, Ian MacFarland, Michael Manoochehri, Sean Marimpietri, Matthew Mayernik, Karen Joy Nomorosa, Hyunwoo Park, Alberto Pepe, Jordan Shedlock, Isabelle Sperano, Daniel D. Turner, and Longhao Wang
Case Study Authors: Daniel Brenners, Gracen Brilmyer, Jason Danker, David Eicke, Colin Gerber, Shaun Giudici, Emilie Hardman, Hassan Jannah, Sandra Lee, Carlo Liquido, Ian MacFarland, Andrew McConachie, Emily Paul, Pratibha Rathore, Becca Stanger, and Suhaib Syed
Bibliography Editors: Lisa Jervis, Shohei Narron, and Anne Wootton
Cover Designer: Jen Wang
Illustrators: Divya Anand, Ajeeta Dhole, Robyn Perry, Christina Pham, and Raymon Sutedjo-The
CSS Page Designs: Nellie McKesson, Adam Witwer, Murray Maloney
User Interface Consultant: Isabelle Sperano
DocBook Consultants: Bob Stayton and Jirka Kosek
Markup & Production Editor: Murray Maloney
Copyright © 2013-2020 Robert J. Glushko
Some rights reserved. The Discipline of Organizing: 4th Professional Edition is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
Any trademarks, registered names, or service marks mentioned in this book are the property of the respective holder(s).
The publishers and the authors are not responsible for the persistence or accuracy of the Internet addresses (URIs) for websites referred to in this publication and cannot guarantee that the content of any such site is currently, will be, or has ever been suitable for your consumption for any intent or purpose.
Published by (2020): Robert J. Glushko. San Francisco, CA.
Published by (2014-2016): O’ReillyMedia. Sebastopol, CA.
Published by (2013): The MIT Press. Cambridge, MA.
Produced in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
The Discipline of Organizing (4th ed.)/ edited by Robert J. Glushko.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Information organization.
2. Information resources management.
I. Glushko, Robert J., editor of compilation.
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