68 Key Points in Chapter Ten

  • Where do interactions come from in an organizing system?

    Interactions arise naturally from the affordances of resources or are purposefully designed into organizing systems.

    (See “Introduction”)

  • What are the most common interactions with resources in organizing systems?

    Accessing and merging resources are fundamental interactions that occur in almost every organizing system.

    (See “Introduction”)

  • What factors distinguish interactions?

    User requirements, which layer of resource properties is used, and the legal, social and organizational environment can distinguish interactions.

    (See “Determining Interactions”)

  • What prevents people from making perfectly rational decisions?

    Limited memory and attention capacities prevent people from remembering everything and make them unable to consider more than a few things or choices at once.

    (See “User Requirements”)

  • Behavioral economics can sometimes produce better classifications and choices, but what are the possible downsides of its use in design?

    The principles of behavioral economics can be used to design organizing systems that manipulate people into taking actions and making choices that they might not intend or that are not in their best interests.

    (See the sidebar, Behavioral Economics)

  • What activities, with respect to resources, are typically required to enable interactions?

    In order to enable interactions, it is necessary to identify, describe, and sometimes transform the resources in an organizing system.

    (See “Identifying and Describing Resources for Interactions”)

  • What is a crosswalk?

    Similar to mapping, a straightforward approach to transformation is the use of crosswalks, which are equivalence tables that relate resource description elements, semantics, and writing systems from one organizing system to those of another.

    (See “Modes of Transformation”)

  • How can we distinguish or classify transformations in organizing systems?

    Merging transformations can be distinguished by type (mapping or crosswalk), time (design time or run time) and mode (manual or automatic).

    (See “Granularity and Abstraction”)

  • What factors distinguish implementations of resource-based interactions?

    Implementations can be distinguished by the source of the algorithm (information retrieval, machine learning, natural language processing), by their complexity (number of actions needed), by whether resources are changed, or by the resource description layers they are based on.

    (See “Implementing Interactions”)

  • What evaluation criteria distinguish interactions?

    Important aspects for the evaluation of interactions are efficiency (timeliness and cost-effectiveness), effectiveness (accuracy and relevance) and satisfaction (positive attitude of the user).

    (See “Evaluating Interactions”)

  • What is relevance?

    The concept of relevance and its relationship to effectiveness is pivotal in information retrieval and machine learning interactions.

    (See “Relevance”)

  • What is the recall and precision trade-off?

    The trade-off between recall and precision decides whether a search finds all relevant documents (high recall) or only relevant documents (high precision).

    (See “The Recall / Precision Tradeoff”)

  • How does granularity of organization affect recall and precision?

    The extent of the organization principles also impacts recall and precision: more fine-grained organization allows for more precise interactions.

    (See “The Recall / Precision Tradeoff”)


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The Discipline of Organizing: 4th Professional Edition Copyright © 2020 by Robert J. Glushko is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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